DELIVERY IN FOREIGN TRADE FIGURES ( Incoterms )
Which is party to international trade firms located in different countries, sometimes on different continents are built- in , often do not recognize each other . Goods transport between countries and continents becomes the subject goods during the transport of a variety of risks and costs associated with arises. These costs and risks exporter of me or importers belong to be between the parties during the negotiations to identify and commercial contracts accordingly modified gerekmektedir.örneg the handling of kimim organized by the will , the costs of transport by whom payable during transportation of goods damage , lost , stolen, such as which side to take measures against the risks , the buyer pays the cost of goods from the beginning of the issues covered by the decision whether or not contain what is necessary to connect to
International Chamber of Commerce , taking into account the commercial usage of our time , the buyer and the seller's obligations , costs and risks, defining the limits of the various concepts defined . This concept is called Incoterms of the International Chamber of Commerce Brochure No. 500 was released as . Exporters and importers , their bargaining during the above considerations all details about the separate subject of bargaining the need to not exist; instead, incoterms information about owning and negotiate them of their corresponding delivery methods to express the concept of making it through would be useful .
Used in foreign trade of delivery ( incoterms) , International Chamber of Commerce in the light of the definitions are explained in the following way .
- EXW ( Ex Works ) : Commercial Business Delivery
- FCA ( Free Carrier ) : Tasic Delivery
- FAS ( Free Alongside ) : Ships in line Delivery
- FOB (Free on Board ) : Delivery on Board
- CFR ( Cost and Freight ) : Cost and Freight
- CIF ( Cost, Insurance and Freight ) : Cost , Insurance and Freight
- CPT ( Carriage Paid To) : Carriage Paid To
- CIP ( Carriage and Insurance Paid To) : Carriage and Insurance Paid To
- DAF ( Delivered At Frontier ) : Delivered At Frontier
- DES ( Delivered Ex Ship) : Delivered Ex Ship
- DEQ ( Delivered Ex Quay ) : Delivered Ex Quay
- DDU ( Delivered Duty Unpaid ) : Delivered Duty Unpaid
- DDP ( Delivered Duty Paid ) : Delivered Duty Paid
- Commercial Business Delivery / Ex Works (EXW)
"Ex works" at the vendor's goods ( factories, warehouses , etc. . ) To keep buyers ready to order means that fulfilled his obligation to deliver . Seller , unless otherwise agreed, the goods being loaded into a vehicle provided by the buyer or passed through customs is not responsible for the export of goods . From this point until the receiver to the destination , and all costs associated with the transportation of goods is obliged risks . This term thus the minimum obligation for the seller in the sale is a form containing .. This form of delivery specified in the contract sales price is included in the price of packaged goods only . So from the date of delivery , all transportation, loading, unloading and insurance costs are paid by the buyer .
Carrier, delivery / Free Carrier (FCA)
The seller 's obligation to deliver the goods passed through customs export , to the carrier nominated by the buyer , at the designated location or point and ends with the delivery . If an exact delivery location is not specified by the buyer , the seller will deliver the goods near the location of the carrier may designate a location . Commercial applications can be made with the carrier contracts require the assistance of sales ( eg iron and air transportation risks and costs to the buyer at the seller sole discretion may move.
Ship in line Delivery / Free Alongside Ship ( Morocco)
The seller 's obligation to deliver the goods at the named port of the ship or barge docks in line by putting the ends . This , from this moment , all expenses related to the goods , loss or damage means the risks borne by the buyer . Of goods , loading, unloading , shipping and insurance costs are paid by buyers . In Morocco, sales price and cost of goods specified in the contract , as well as the shipping fee is included up to the dock . This term , the buyer's customs clearance of goods for export indicates that it should . Buyer directly or indirectly, should be used if the fulfillment of the export transactions .
Ship Stock Exchange Delivery / Free On Board (FOB)
The seller 's obligation to deliver the goods at the port of loading is determined from the moment you open the ship's rail would have been fulfilled . Risk of loss or damage to the goods from that point on all the expenses are borne by the buyer from . Board of the vessel does not mean anything in practice (for example , as roll-on/roll-off or container transportation ) would be more accurate to use the term FCA .
Cost and Freight / Cost and Freight (CFR)
The seller to send the goods to the destination port and freight has to pay all the necessary expenses . However, with the costs related to the goods can be seen in the risk of loss and damage increase , at the loading port from the moment the goods pass the ship's rail will be transferred from seller to buyer . The CFR term seller to clear the goods for export indicates that it should .
Cost, Insurance and Freight / Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF)
The seller has the same obligations as in the CFR . However, in addition , loss or damage during the transportation of goods has to procure marine insurance against the risks . The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium . Buyers and sellers of this term insurance to provide only the minimum liability coverage should know that .
This term the seller to clear the goods for export indicates that it should . This term is used only for sea and inland waterway transport . Practice does not mean a thing if the ship's rail , the CIP term is more appropriate to use .
Carriage Paid To / Carriage Paid To (CPT)
This term the seller of the goods to the named destination agreed that pays the freight for transporting means . Risk of loss and damage of property belonging to the carrier, with the additional costs arising from the delivery of goods in the custody of the carrier from issuing passes from seller to buyer . Carriers in a contract of carriage of iron, land, sea, air, inland water transport or as a result of their merger is one who undertakes the transport process .
Carriage and Insurance Paid / Carriage and Insurance Paid ( CIP)
The seller has the same obligations as in CPT . But in addition to the risk of loss or damage during the transportation of goods to provide insurance against the insurance contract does durumundadır.satıc and pays the insurance premium .
Frontier Delivery / Delivered At Frontier ( DAF )
This term of the seller 's obligation to deliver the goods for export passed through customs at the border, or at the point designated place , but before the customs border of the adjoining country and not unloaded refers to the end . Term limit , including the border of the exporting country limit are available to any . Thus, in terms of the boundary question or place each time point is defined by specifying the exact manner is of vital importance .
Delivered Ex Ship / Delivered Ex Ship ( DES)
The seller 's obligation to deliver the goods at the destination port , on board the ship , killing disposal of the buyer not cleared for import from the ends to keep ready . The seller of goods to the destination port need to be brought to bear all costs and risks . This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport .
Delivered Ex Quay (Customs Taxes and Fees Paid) Delivered Ex Quay ( Duty Paid ) ( Deqin )
Delivered Ex Quay (Customs Taxes and Fees Paid) The seller 's obligation to deliver the goods at the destination port as violations passed through customs , ready to order to keep the buyer on the quay ends .
Seller , up to the point relating to the transportation of goods , taxes and other charges , including all the risks and costs are assumed. This term the seller is unable to provide either directly or indirectly license should not be used on the road . If the parties to be cleared by the buyer of the goods and the payment of customs duties if they want the "duty paid " instead of " duty unpaid " should use the term . If the parties are to be paid for the importation of goods from the seller's obligations some expenses if they want to ( as KDV ) that , by adding words to this effect should finalize .
Delivered Duty Unpaid / Delivered Duty Unpaid ( DDU )
The seller 's obligation to deliver the goods, the importing country , and not unloaded at the designated place with the ends . The seller of the goods transported up to that point and the fulfillment of customs formalities has to bear the risks and costs associated with ( to pay for imports , excluding taxes and levies ) .
Buyer customs clearance of goods for import in time additional costs and to bear any risks arising from the seller's side durumundadır.eg bring out customs formalities that has to bear the costs and risks that may arise .
If the parties that the seller has met the customs formalities to undertake the risks and costs that may arise if they do it, by adding words to this effect should finalize . If the parties to the seller's obligations some of the costs required for the import of goods , if you want to add (KDV like it) , by adding words to this effect should finalize . This term is used irrespective of the form of transport .
Delivered Duty Paid Delivered Duty Paid ( DDP)
The seller 's obligation to deliver the goods import and not unloaded at the named place in the end . The seller of the goods transported up to that point , needed to be imported from customs duties, taxes and other charges , including the risks and costs has to bear . EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller persists, DDP represents the maximum obligation .